Insights on the Novel Coronavirus SARSCoV- 2 (COVID-19): Existing and Future Considerations

International Journal of Research in Health Sciences,2020,8,4,32-40.
Published:January 2021
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Jennifer S. Nguyen1,#, Vivian M. Osorio1,#, Nora H. Elias1, Tala Zayed1, Majid Shahabbedin1, Khalil Khollesi1,2, Ali Baroon1,3,4, Ali R. Jazirehi1,2,*

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Social Sciences, California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA

2Los Angeles City College, Department of Life Science, 855 N. Vermont Ave., Los Angeles, CA, 90029, USA

3Westcoast University, Department of General education, 1477 Manchester Ave., Anaheim, CA 92802, USA

4Los Angeles Mission College, Department of Life Science, 13356 Eldrige Ave., Sylmar, CA 91342, USA


The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), quickly progressed into a worldwide pandemic. Coronavirus outbreaks in the past were related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2 consists of a large genome structured as a spherical, single-stranded, positive sense (+) RNA. The virus uses its spike glycoprotein to enter host cells via interaction with human angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2). COVID-19 is transmitted through droplets, indirect and direct physical contact, possibly via aerosolized particles, and fecal-oral transmission. Clinical manifestations of the disease display similarities to both SARS and MERS, including symptoms such as fever, headache, shortness of breath, fatigue, dry cough, sore throat, and muscle aches. Some patients develop other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection includes conducting real-time RT-PCR and serological assays, with the former being the primary test of choice. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread includes effective implementation of self-isolation and increased healthy hygiene measures. Treatment of COVID-19 remains to be supportive care, while clinical trials are being conducted to test the efficacy of various pharmacological agents such as hydroxychloroquine/ chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPVr), ivermectin, steroid therapy, targeting S protein-HS interactions, and utilizing exogenous heparin as an inhibitory agent. While these approaches have shown promise based on preliminary data, future studies are warranted to ascertain the efficacy and safety of these treatment approaches and to identify novel targets for therapeutic purposes. This review focuses on discussions on these topics.


Current treatment options for SARS-CoV-2