GSM stands System for Mobile communications. This is a digital mobile telephone system used in most part of the world. The tremendous growth of telecommunication industry results in increase in the number of handset user’s everyday which has created a matter of concern in the scientist community .Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones can cause harmful effect on cell, tissues and chromosomes. The rapid growth in use of this device has led to widespread concern for the safety of this device in long term exposure to the microwave radiation of low intensity. In this paper, we examined the anatomical (microscopic) and physiological effect (hormonal) of mobile phone radiations on thyroid gland to know its effect. However only on the basis of one or two parameters any conclusion cannot be justified, however it requires future comparative investigations to proof. Here in our study we found that with increase in the doses of radiation and increase in duration of time the microscopic anatomy of thyroid gland showed appreciable changes, also when the hormonal analysis was done the level of thyroid hormone was found disturbed. This is a matter of concern and need further more studies to see whether other endocrine glands are also effected or not by the radiations being emitted by the handsets.