HIV and Malaria are among the two most important global health problems; together they cause more than four million deaths per year. Both are diseases acquired, driven and sustained by poverty.Evidence on interactions between malaria and HIV/AIDS in non-pregnant adults is accumulating. Both diseases are highly endemic having a wide geographical overlap. Co-infection with malaria and HIV is most evident in areas of generalized HIV epidemic and stable malaria transmission. In areas with stable malaria, HIV infection increases the risk of malaria infection and clinical malaria in adults, especially in those with advanced immunosuppression. In settings with unstable malaria, HIV infected adults with AIDS are at increased risk of severe malaria and death. Anti-malarial treatment failure may be more common in HIV infected adults with low CD4 cell counts than in those not infected with HIV. Malaria is endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa and this area is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic. There are several ways in which HIV and malaria could potentially interact with each other, affecting thereby, the transmission, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcomes of either disease. Therefore, the interaction between two diseases is of great significance on the incidence, clinical course, therapeutic intervention and prevention of both. Even small effects and small interactions of malaria and HIV could have substantial and dramatic population-based effects and of great public health importance.