Introduction: The newborn brain is vulnerable to injury from many causes, like preterm delivery, hypoxia, trauma etc. Cranial ultrasonography are widely used to identify preterm neonates at risk for brain injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental defects. Aims and Objectives: Role of cranial ultrasonography to evaluate intracranial abnormalities in preterm and term neonates. Materials and methods: This is a prospective hospital based study conducted in Sagar Hospitals, Jayanagar, Bangalore. This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates, who were admitted in NICU. Results: This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates. In our study, total 12 neonates 23.1% were having flaring, total 11 neonates 21.2% were having ICH, total 6 neonates 11.5% were having PVL, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cysts, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cerebral oedema and normal 15 neonates 28.8%. Conclusion: Cranial ultrasonography is a cheap, convenient, non-invasive technique for imaging the newborn brain. Because of its accuracy, ease of performance, and safety, the use of real-time cranial ultrasonography of neonates has gained wide acceptance as a first line imaging investigation in the neonatal intensive care unit.